Triple Entente. Neither Napoleonic France and its satellites versus Britain and its allies. Rome vs. These colours denote a difference that is intriguing because you probably never even realised it existed. After this, you won't be able to ever un-see it. You may have never noticed, but you can't un-know it now: red means 'furthest first', blue means 'longest last'. Image: Strange Maps. Some involve mysterious lines on the map that divide the world into two wholly unexpected halves. Image: Wikimedia Commons. Or the Barassi Line, which cuts across the east of Australia from the Northern Territories to New South Wales, demarcating the part of the country, west and south of the line, where Australian-rules football is more popular, from the part to the line's east and north, where rugby league or union sets more hearts racing.
Image: Demography Resources. And then there's the Hajnal Line, roughly from St Petersburg to Trieste, that divides Europe into two distinct zones of 'nuptuality': west of the line, marriage rates and fertility are comparatively low, even before the 20 th century; to the east, both are or were comparatively high. Prior to relatively modern times, the late marriage pattern in Western Europe was fairly unique in the world. Image: Reddit. Here's a map that fortuitously flashed up the screen a few days ago, showing a weird coalition of countries, from the western Balkans all the way to the borders of China.
Alexander the Great's empire? Not quite. Considering that these languages include members of the Romance, Slavic, Turkic families, that's quite a feat 2. Do you have any other examples of lines, colours and coalitions on maps that show the world in a different light? Let me know at strangemaps gmail. Big Think Edge For You. Big Think Edge For Business. Preview an Edge video. Sponsored by Charles Koch Foundation The key to ending online hate? Treat it like a virus. What happens when a leader in the purity movement gets a divorce?
Former evangelical pastor Joshua Harris has put himself in a difficult situation. Former pastor, Joshua Harris, recently announced that he's divorcing his wife of twenty years. Harris's book, I Kissed Dating Goodbye , sold over a million copies and is credited for influencing the Christian purity movement. His work has harmed a lot of people, causing Harris to rethink his ideas two decades after its publication. Let's start with a basic fact: relationships are hard. Charles Koch Foundation. The opinions expressed in this video do not necessarily reflect the views of the Charles Koch Foundation, which encourages the expression of diverse viewpoints within a culture of civil discourse and mutual respect.
Keep reading Show less. In order to develop his model of self-actualization, Abraham Maslow interviewed friends, colleagues, students, and historical figures. These 9 historical figures demonstrate different aspects of self-actualization that Maslow believed all self-actualized individuals possessed to one degree or another. By studying these figures, we can come to a better understanding of what self-actualization really is. Can you guess the legend to this map?
It shows Europe divided into two bafflingly unfamiliar blocs - what do red and blue stand for? Europe divided into two blocs? However, this map of Red vs. Blue countries is indecipherable without its legend. That key is both trivial and unexpected. Can you guess what it is? Red vs. Let's have a look at who's actually in these two blocs. In red: a contiguous slice of Europe, from up in Norway all the way down to Greece, anchored on Germany — the only one of Europe's Big Five 1 in the club.
However, the red zone also includes outliers such as Iceland and Ireland. In blue: everybody else, in two zones separated by the red one. In the south and west, we find the other four members of the Big Five, and some smaller countries. In the east and north, there's Russia, Turkey and places in between and nearby, including Poland and Ukraine. This smart tech gives plants feelings Designers from Luxembourg created a smart planter that can make anyone have a green thumb. Images credit: mu-design. A design team came up with a smart planter that can indicate 15 emotions. The emotions are derived from the sensors placed in the planter.
The device is not in production yet but you can order it through a crowdfunding campaign. NASA's idea for making food from thin air just became a reality — it could feed billions. Read a Harvard geneticist's plan for redesigning humans. A summary or simple divorce, available in some jurisdictions [ which? Some Western jurisdictions have a no-fault divorce system, which requires no allegation or proof of fault of either party. For example, in countries that require "irretrievable breakdown", the mere assertion that the marriage has broken down will satisfy the judicial officer.
In other jurisdictions requiring irreconcilable differences, the mere allegation that the marriage has been irreparable by these differences is enough for granting a divorce. Courts will not inquire into facts. A "yes" is enough, even if the other party vehemently says "no". In jurisdictions adopting the 'no-fault' principle regarding whether to grant a divorce, some courts may still take into account the fault of the parties when determining some aspects of the content of the divorce decree, e. Provisions related to child custody are determined using a different fundamental standard, that of the child's or children's best interests; while some behaviors that may constitute marital fault e.
When the parties can agree and present the court with a fair and equitable agreement, approval of the divorce is almost guaranteed. If the two parties cannot come to an agreement, they may ask the court to decide how to split property and deal with the custody of their children.
Though this may be necessary, the courts would prefer parties come to an agreement prior to entering court. Where the issues are not complex and the parties are cooperative, a settlement often can be directly negotiated between them. In the majority of cases, forms are acquired from their respective state websites and a filing fee is paid to the state. Because of additional requirements that must be met, most military divorces are typically uncontested. In the United States , many state court systems are experiencing an increasing proportion of pro se i.
Collaborative divorce is a method for divorcing couples to come to agreement on divorce issues. In a collaborative divorce, the parties negotiate an agreed resolution with the assistance of attorneys who are trained in the collaborative divorce process and in mediation and often with the assistance of a neutral financial specialist or divorce coaches. The parties are empowered to make their own decisions based on their own needs and interests, but with complete information and full professional support.
Once the collaborative divorce starts, the lawyers are disqualified from representing the parties in a contested legal proceeding, should the collaborative law process end prematurely. Most attorneys who practice collaborative divorce claim that it can be more cost-effective than other divorce methods, e. Also, the experience of working collaboratively tends to improve communication between the parties, particularly when collaborative coaches are involved, and the possibility of going back to court post-separation or divorce is minimized.
In the course of the collaboration, should the parties not reach any agreements, any documents or information exchanged during the collaborative process cannot be used in court except by agreement between the parties. Neither can any of the professional team retained in the course of the collaboration be brought to court.
Essentially, they have the same protections as in mediation. There are two exceptions: 1 Any affidavit sworn in the course of the collaboration and vouching documentation attaching to same and 2 any interim agreement made and signed off in the course of the collaboration or correspondence relating thereto. The parties are in control of the time they are prepared to give their collaboration. Some people need a lot of time to complete, whereas others will reach solutions in a few meetings. Collaborative practitioners offer a tightly orchestrated model with meetings scheduled in advance every two weeks, and the range of items to be discussed apportioned in advance of signing up as well as the more open ended process, the clients decide.
Portugal , for example, allows two persons to file an electronic request for no-fault collaborative divorce in a non judiciary administrative entity. In specific cases, with no children , real property , alimony , or common address, can be completed within one hour. Divorce mediation is an alternative to traditional divorce litigation. In a divorce mediation session, a mediator facilitates the discussion between the two parties by assisting with communication and providing information and suggestions to help resolve differences.
At the end of the mediation process, the separating parties have typically developed a tailored divorce agreement that can be submitted to the court. Mediation sessions can include either party's attorneys, a neutral attorney, or an attorney-mediator who can inform both parties of their legal rights, but does not provide advice to either, or can be conducted with the assistance of a facilitative or transformative mediator without attorneys present at all.
Some mediation companies, such as Wevorce , also pair clients with counselors, financial planners and other professionals to work through common mediation sticking points. Divorce mediation can be significantly less costly, both financially and emotionally, than litigation. The adherence rate to mediated agreements is much higher than that of adherence to court orders. Polygamy is a significant structural factor governing divorce in countries where this is permitted.
Little-to-no analysis has been completed to explicitly explain the link between marital instability and polygamy which leads to divorce. The frequency of divorce rises in polygamous marriages compared to monogamous relationships. Within polygamous unions, differences in conjugal stability are found to occur by wife order. There are 3 main mechanisms through which polygamy affects divorce: economic restraint, sexual satisfaction, and childlessness.
Many women escape economic restraint through divorcing their spouses when they are allowed to initiate a divorce. An annual study in the UK by management consultants Grant Thornton , estimates the main proximal causes of divorce based on surveys of matrimonial lawyers. The first 5 years are relatively divorce-free, and if a marriage survives more than 20 years it is unlikely to end in divorce.
Social scientists study the causes of divorce in terms of underlying factors that may possibly motivate divorce. One of these factors is the age at which a person gets married; delaying marriage may provide more opportunity or experience in choosing a compatible partner. The elevation of divorce rates among couples who cohabited prior to marriage is called the "cohabitation effect. In , a study by Jay Teachman published in Journal of Marriage and Family found that women who have cohabited or had premarital sex with men other than their husbands have an increased risk of divorce, and that this effect is strongest for women who have cohabited with multiple men prior to marriage.
To Teachman, the fact that the elevated risk of divorce is only experienced when the premarital partner s is someone other than the husband indicates that premarital sex and cohabitation are now a normal part of the courtship process in the United States. Divorce is sometimes caused by one of the partners finding the other unattractive. Some of the effects associated with divorce include academic, behavioral, and psychological problems.
Although this may not always be true, studies suggest that children from divorced families are more likely to exhibit such behavioral issues than those from non-divorced families. Research done at Northern Illinois University on Family and Child Studies suggests that divorce of couples experiencing high conflict can have a positive effect on families by reducing conflict in the home. There are, however, many instances when the parent—child relationship may suffer due to divorce. Financial support is many times lost when an adult goes through a divorce.
The adult may be obligated to obtain additional work to maintain financial stability. In turn, this can lead to a negative relationship between the parent and child; the relationship may suffer due to lack of attention towards the child as well as minimal parental supervision .
Studies have also shown that parental skills decrease after a divorce occurs; however, this effect is only a temporary change. Some couples choose divorce even when one spouse's desire to remain married is greater than the other spouse's desire to obtain a divorce.
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In economics this is known as the Zelder Paradox , and is more common with marriages that have produced children, and less common with childless couples. In an American Psychological Association study of parents' relocation after a divorce, researchers found that a move has a long-term effect on children. In the first study conducted amongst 2, college students on the effects of parental relocation relating to their children's well-being after divorce, researchers found major differences.
In divorced families in which one parent moved, the students received less financial support from their parents compared with divorced families in which neither parent moved. These findings also imply other negative outcomes for these students, such as more distress related to the divorce and did not feel a sense of emotional support from their parents. Although the data suggests negative outcomes for these students whose parents relocate after divorce, there is insufficient research that can alone prove the overall well-being of the child  A newer study in the Journal of Family Psychology found that parents who move more than an hour away from their children after a divorce are much less well off than those parents who stayed in the same location .
Divorce is associated with diminished psychological well-being in children and adult offspring of divorced parents, including greater unhappiness, less satisfaction with life, weaker sense of personal control, anxiety, depression, and greater use of mental health services. A preponderance of evidence indicates that there is a causal effect between divorce and these outcomes. Children of divorced parents are also more likely to experience conflict in their own marriages, and are more likely to experience divorce themselves.
They are also more likely to be involved in short-term cohabiting relationships, which often dissolve before marriage. There are two key factors that make this transmission of divorce more likely. First, inherited biological tendencies or genetic conditions may predispose a child to divorce as well as the "model of marriage" presented by the child's parents. There is nothing worse, for most children, than for their parents to denigrate each other.
Parents simply do not realize the damage they do to their children by the battles they wage over them. Separating parents rarely behave reasonably, although they always believe that they are doing so, and that the other party is behaving unreasonably. Children involved in high-conflict divorce or custody cases can experience varying forms of parental alienation , which courts often consider to be a form of child abuse.
Specific examples of parental alienation include brainwashing the child to cease their relationship with the other parent, telling the child that the other parent does not love them, teaching the child to call another adult by a parental name in effort to replace the other parent, limiting communication between the child and the other parent, and limiting quality time between the child and the other parent. If evidence reveals that a parent is actively alienating the child from their other parent, their case for custody can be severely damaged. Research shows that children can be affected 2—4 years before the separation or divorce even occurs.
This can be due to parental conflict and anticipation of a divorce, and decreased parental contact. Many couples believe that by separating, or becoming legally divorced that they are helping their children, and in situations of extreme parental conflict of abuse it most likely will be beneficial. Exposure to marital conflict and instability, most often has negative consequences for children. Several mechanisms are likely to be responsible. First, observing overt conflict between parents is a direct stressor for children.
Conflict between parents also tends to spill over and negatively affect the quality of parents' interactions with their children. Researchers found that the associations between marital conflict and children's externalizing and internalizing problems were largely mediated by parents' use of harsh punishment and parent—child conflict.
Furthermore, modeling verbal or physical aggression, parents "teach" their children that disagreements are resolved through conflict rather than calm discussion. As a result, children may not learn the social skills such as the ability to negotiate and reach compromises that are necessary to form mutually rewarding relationships with peers. Girls and boys deal with divorce differently. For instance, girls who initially show signs of adapting well, later suffer from anxiety in romantic relationships with men.
Studies also showed that girls who were separated from their fathers at a younger age tended to be more angry toward the situation as they aged. Anger and sadness were also observed at common feeling in adolescents who had experienced parental divorce. Frequently, children who have experienced a divorce have lower academic achievement than children from non-divorced families  In a review of family and school factors related to adolescents' academic performance, it noted that a child from a divorced family is two times more likely to drop out of high school than a child from a non-divorced family.
These children from divorced families may also be less likely to attend college, resulting in the discontinuation of their academic career. Many times academic problems are associated with those children from single-parent families. Studies have shown that this issue may be directly related to the economical influence of divorce. A divorce may result in the parent and children moving to an area with a higher poverty rate and a poor education system all due to the financial struggles of a single parent.
Children of divorced parents also achieve lower levels of socioeconomic status, income, and wealth accumulation than children of continuously married parents. These outcomes are associated with lower educational achievement. Young men or women between the ages of 7 and 16 who had experienced the divorce of their parents were more likely than youths who had not experienced the divorce of their parents to leave home because of friction, to cohabit before marriage, and to parent a child before marriage.
Divorce often leads to worsened academic achievement in children ages 7—12, the most heightened negative effect being reading test scores. These negative effects tend to persist, and even escalate after the divorce or separation occurs. Children of divorced or separated parents exhibit increased behavioral problems and the marital conflict that accompanies parents' divorce places the child's social competence at risk.
More and more seniors are staying single; an analysis of census data conducted at Bowling Green State University predicted that divorce numbers will continue to rise. Baby boomers that remain unmarried are five times more likely to live in poverty compared to those who are married. They are also three times as likely to receive food stamps, public assistance or disability payments.
Sociologists believe that the rise in the number of older Americans who are not married is a result of factors such as longevity and economics. Women, especially, are becoming more and more financially independent which allows them to feel more secure with being alone, in addition to changing perceptions of being divorced or single. This has resulted in less pressure for baby boomers to marry or stay married.
In Japan, divorces were on a generally upward trend from the s until when they hit a peak of , Since then, both the number of divorces and the divorce rate declined for six years straight. In , the number of divorces totalled ,, and the divorce rate was 1. Due to the existence of diverse religious faiths in India, the Indian Judiciary has implemented laws separately for couples belonging to different religious beliefs. Mutual consent divorce procedure  is relatively easier and fast while contested divorce procedure  takes longer and depends on the religions of the couples.
The figure represents a In , the ten places with the highest divorce rates in the UK are all beside the sea, with Blackpool in the top position. In , on average, first marriages that end in divorce last about eight years.
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In , success in marriage has been associated with higher education and higher age. It revealed that when sampling the same data by individuals, Republican-leaning voters are less likely to have a divorce or extramarital affair than Democratic-leaning voters and independents. In , based on studies by Jenifer L. Bratter and Rosalind B. King made publicly available on the Education Resources Information Center , unions between white males and non-white females and between Hispanics and non-Hispanic persons have similar or lower risks of divorce than white-white marriages, unions between white male-black female last longer than white-white pairings or white-Asian pairings.
Conversely, white female-black male and white female-Asian male marriages are more prone to divorce than white-white pairings. In , a study  by the Christian poll group the Barna Group ,  reports that a higher divorce rate was associated with infrequent church attendance. In , marriages between people of different faiths were three times more likely to be divorced than those of the same faith. In , A study found a wide range of factors correlating with the divorce rate including frequency of sex, wealth, race, and religious commitment.
In , there were 9, divorces, and the divorce rate number of divorces per 1, existing marriages was In , there were 8, divorces and the divorce rate number of divorces per 1, existing marriages was 8. All U. For same-sex couples in the United States, divorce law is in its infancy. Upon dissolution of a same-sex marriage, legal questions remain as to the rights of spouses to custody of the biological children of their spouses.
Child custody policies include several guidelines that determine with whom the child lives following divorce, how time is divided in joint custody situations, and visitation rights. The most frequently applied custody guideline is the best interests of the child standard, which takes into account the parents' preferences, the child's preferences, the interactions between parents and children, children's adjustment, and all family members' mental and physical health.
I Want to Divorce My Wife: The Truth About Getting a Divorce
In some countries commonly in Europe and North America , the government defines and administers marriages and divorces. While ceremonies may be performed by religious officials on behalf of the state, a civil marriage and thus, civil divorce without the involvement of a religion is also possible. Due to differing standards and procedures, a couple can be legally unmarried, married, or divorced by the state's definition, but have a different status as defined by a religious order. Other countries use religious law to administer marriages and divorces, eliminating this distinction.
In these cases, religious officials are generally responsible for interpretation and implementation. Islam allows, yet generally advises against divorce, and it can be initiated by either the husband or the wife. Dharmic religions allow divorce under some circumstances. Christian views on divorce vary: Roman Catholic teaching allows only annulment, while most other denominations discourage it except in the event of adultery. We believe that the only legitimate marriage is the joining of one man and one woman Gen.
We deplore the evils of divorce and remarriage. We regard adultery as the only scripturally justifiable grounds for divorce; and the party guilty of adultery has by his or her act forfeited membership in the church. In the case of divorce for other cause, neither party shall be permitted to marry again during the lifetime of the other; and violation of this law shall be punished by expulsion from the church Matt.
In the carrying out of these principles, guilt shall be established in accordance with judicial procedures set forth in The Discipline. Jewish views of divorce differ, with Reform Judaism considering civil divorces adequate; Conservative and Orthodox Judaism, on the other hand, require that the husband grant his wife a divorce in the form of a get.
Several countries use sharia Islamic law to administrate marriages and divorces for Muslims. Thus, Marriage in Israel is administered separately by each religious community Jews, Christians, Muslims, and Druze , and there is no provision for interfaith marriages other than marrying in another country. For Jews, marriage and divorce are administered by Orthodox rabbis. Partners can file for divorce either in rabbinical court or Israeli civil court.
According to a study published in the American Law and Economics Review, women have filed slightly more than two-thirds of divorce cases in the United States. These findings also correlate with the Office for National Statistics publication "Divorces in England and Wales  which reported that divorce petitions from women outnumber those from men by 2 to 1. The report concluded that the percentage of shared residence orders would need to increase in order for more equitable financial divisions to become the norm. Some jurisdictions give unequal rights to men and women when filing for divorce.
For couples to Conservative or Orthodox Jewish law which by Israeli civil law includes all Jews in Israel , the husband must grant his wife a divorce through a document called a get. If the man refuses, and agreeing on condition he won't have to pay the money is still called refusing , the woman can appeal to a court or the community to pressure the husband. A woman whose husband refuses to grant the get or a woman whose husband is missing without sufficient knowledge that he died, is called an agunah , is still married, and therefore cannot remarry.
Under Orthodox law, children of an extramarital affair involving a married Jewish woman are considered mamzerim illegitimate and cannot marry non- mamzerim. The ancient Athenians liberally allowed divorce, but the person requesting divorce had to submit the request to a magistrate , and the magistrate could determine whether the reasons given were sufficient.
Divorce was rare in early Roman culture but as their empire grew in power and authority Roman civil law embraced the maxim, " matrimonia debent esse libera " "marriages ought to be free" , and either husband or wife could renounce the marriage at will. The Christian emperors Constantine and Theodosius restricted the grounds for divorce to grave cause, but this was relaxed by Justinian in the 6th century. After the fall of the Roman Empire, familial life was regulated more by ecclesiastical authority than civil authority. The Catholic and Orthodox Church had, among others, a differing view of divorce.
The Orthodox Church recognized that there are rare occasions when it is better that couples do separate. For the Orthodox, to say that marriage is indissoluble means that it should not be broken, the violation of such a union, perceived as holy, being an offense resulting from either adultery or the prolonged absence of one of the partners. Thus, permitting remarriage is an act of compassion of the Church towards sinful man.
Under the influence of the Catholic Church the divorce rate had been greatly reduced by the 9th or 10th century,  which considered marriage a sacrament instituted by Jesus Christ and indissoluble by mere human action. Although divorce, as known today, was generally prohibited in Catholic lands after the 10th century, separation of husband and wife and the annulment of marriage were well-known.
What is today referred to as " separate maintenance " or " legal separation " was termed "divorce a mensa et thoro" "divorce from bed-and-board".tax-marusa.com/order/lyhysinuf/pirater-un-iphone-sans-y-avoir-acces.php
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The husband and wife physically separated and were forbidden to live or cohabit together; but their marital relationship did not fully terminate. The grounds for annulment were determined by a Catholic church authority and applied in ecclesiastical courts. Annulment was for canonical causes of impediment existing at the time of the marriage. After the Reformation , marriage came to be considered a contract in the newly Protestant regions of Europe, and on that basis civil authorities gradually asserted their power to decree a "divortium a vinculo matrimonii", or "divorce from all the bonds of marriage".
Since no precedents existed defining the circumstances under which marriage could be dissolved, civil courts heavily relied on the previous determinations of the ecclesiastic courts and freely adopted the requirements set down by those courts. As the civil courts assumed the power to dissolve marriages, courts still strictly construed the circumstances under which they would grant a divorce,  and considered divorce to be contrary to public policy. Because divorce was considered to be against the public interest, civil courts refused to grant a divorce if evidence revealed any hint of complicity between the husband and wife to divorce, or if they attempted to manufacture grounds for a divorce.
Divorce was granted only because one party to the marriage had violated a sacred vow to the "innocent spouse". If both husband and wife were guilty, "neither would be allowed to escape the bonds of marriage". Eventually, the idea that a marriage could be dissolved in cases in which one of the parties violated the sacred vow gradually allowed expansion of the grounds upon which divorce could be granted from those grounds which existed at the time of the marriage to grounds which occurred after the marriage, but which exemplified violation of that vow, such as abandonment , adultery , or "extreme cruelty".
During the English Civil War , the Puritans briefly passed a law that divested marriage of all sacrament, leaving it as a secular contract that could be broken. John Milton wrote four divorce tracts in — that argued for the legitimacy of divorce on grounds of spousal incompatibility. His ideas were ahead of their time; arguing for divorce at all, let alone a version of no-fault divorce , was extremely controversial and religious figures sought to ban his tracts.
The move towards secularisation and liberalisation was reinforced by the individualistic and secular ideals of the Enlightenment. The Enlightened absolutist , King Frederick II "the Great" of Prussia decreed a new divorce law in , in which marriage was declared to be a purely private concern, allowing divorce to be granted on the basis of mutual consent.
This new attitude heavily influenced the law in neighbouring Austria under Emperor Joseph II , where it was applied to all non-Catholic Imperial subjects. The trend in Europe throughout the 19th century, was one of increased liberalisation; by the midth century divorce was generally granted by civil courts in the case of adultery. In Britain before wives were regarded as under the economic and legal protection of their husbands, and divorce was almost impossible. It was very difficult to secure divorce on the grounds of adultery, desertion, or cruelty.
The first key legislative victory came with the Matrimonial Causes Act , which passed over the strenuous opposition of the highly traditional Church of England. The new law made divorce a civil affair of the courts, rather than a Church matter, with a new civil court in London handling all cases.
A woman who obtained a judicial separation took the status of a feme sole, with full control of her own civil rights. Additional amendments came in , which allowed for separations handled by local justices of the peace. The Church of England blocked further reforms until the final breakthrough came with the Matrimonial Causes Act In Spain , the Constitution of the Second Spanish Republic for the first time recognised a right to divorce.
The first law to regulated divorce was the Divorce Act of , that passed the Republican Parliament despite the opposition of the Catholic Church and a coalition of the Agrarian Minority and Minority Basque-Navarre Catholic parties. The dictatorship of General Franco abolished the law. After the restoration of democracy, a new divorce law was passed in , again over the opposition of the Catholic Church and part of the Christian Democrat party, then a part of the ruling Union of Democratic Center.
In Italy , the first divorce law was introduced on 1 December , despite the opposition of the Christian Democrats ,  and entered into force on 18 December In the following years, the Christian Democrats, supported also by parties opposed to the law, promoted a recall referendum. In , in a referendum the majority of the population voted against a repeal of the divorce law.
A feature of the divorce law was the long period of marital separation of five years required. This period was reduced to three in and to a year in , in the case of judicial separation, and six months in the case of separation by mutual agreement. Ireland and Malta approved divorce at referenda in and respectively. Divorce rates increased markedly during the 20th century in developed countries, as social attitudes towards family and sex changed dramatically.
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In the Edo Period — husbands could divorce their wives by writing letters of divorce. Frequently, their relatives or marriage arrangers kept these letters and tried to restore the marriages. Wives could not divorce their husbands. Some wives were able to gain sanctuary in certain Shinto "divorce temples".
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After a wife had spent three years in a temple, her husband was required to divorce her. There are four types of divorce in Japan: divorce by agreement in which the divorce is mutual; divorce by mediation, which happens in family court; divorce by decision of family court that takes place when a couple cannot complete a divorce through mediation; and divorce by judgment of a district court.
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On an all-India level, the Special Marriage Act was passed in , is an inter-religious marriage law permitting Indian nationals to marry and divorce irrespective of their religion or faith. The Hindu Marriage Act , in which legally permitted divorce to Hindus and other communities who chose to marry under these acts. The Indian Divorce Act  is the law relating to the divorce of person professing the Christian religion.
Divorce can be sought by a husband or wife on grounds including adultery, cruelty, desertion for two years, religious conversion, mental abnormality, venereal disease, and leprosy. Mutual consent divorce can not be appealed, and the law mandates a minimum period of six months from the time divorce is applied for for divorce to be granted. While a Muslim husband can unilaterally bring an end to the marriage by pronouncing talaq,  Muslim women must go to court, claiming any of the grounds provided under the Dissolution of Muslim Marriage Act.
In the first major family law reform in the last decade, the Supreme Court of India banned the Islamic practice of "Triple Talaq" divorce by uttering of the "Talaq" word thrice by the husband. The landmark Supreme Court of India judgment was welcomed by women activists across India. Official figures of divorce rates are not available, but it has been estimated that 1 in or another figure of 11 in 1, marriages in India end up in divorce. Various communities are governed by specific marital legislation, distinct to Hindu Marriage Act, and consequently have their own divorce laws:.
An amendment to the marriage laws to allow divorce based on "irretrievable breakdown of marriage" as alleged by one of the spouses is under consideration in India. Divorce in Islam can take a variety of forms, some initiated by the husband and some initiated by the wife. The theory and practice of divorce in the Islamic world have varied according to time and place.
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